Gate valve: An on-off valve that works by inserting a rectangular gate or wedge into the flow of the fluid. The fugitive emission standard for gate valves is covered by API 624 and ISO 15848-1. It should be noted that the stem motion in a gate valve is typically linear, which creates a lot of friction between the valve stem and packing. This friction can cause packing wear and tear as well as leakage. Gate valves are available in different types, such as slab, expanding and wedge. Wedge gate valves have a sealing element in the shape of a wedge. A wedge gate valve is a torque seated valve, meaning that the wedge is expanded from both sides due to the stem force and provides sealing. The expansion of the valve closure member due to the stem axial force is called “wedging effect.” Expanding gate valves are also torque seated valves with a closure member in two sections, one male and the other female. Slab gate valves have a flat disk or closure member that provides sealing due to the fluid pressure. Slab gate valves, unlike expanding and wedge gate valves, are not torque seated.
Gate valves are often used when minimum pressure loss and a free bore is needed. When fully open, a typical gate valve has no obstruction in the flow path resulting in a very low pressure loss, and this design makes it possible to use a pipe-cleaning pig. A gate valve is a multiturn valve meaning that the operation of the valve is done by means of a threaded stem. As the valve has to turn multiple times to go from open to closed position, the slow operation also prevents water hammer effects.